Goole on the Web
Goole-on-the-Web - for all the goings on down Ilkeston Avenue

The Birth of a Borough

Taken from Goole - the Official Handbook, Goole Corporation, c. 1963...

The armorial bearings were granted to the Corporation by the College of Arms on 7th October, 1933. The following is the heraldic description, with explanation:

Goole Coat of Arms

Shield - Or (gold) a lymphad sail set oars in action sable, flags flying to the dexter Gules - on a chief of the second three swans argent. (A black vessel of ancient type, red flags flying to left, on the topmost third part of the shield, black, are three silver swans)

Supporters - on either side a viking supporting in the exterior hand a spear proper.

Motto - Advance (As previously used by the Urban District Council)

Thus heraldically is portrayed something of the locality's connections with the vikings and with Selby Abbey, represented by the three swans.

Selby Abbey is not mentioned in Domesday Book, probably because of its royal foundation and exemption from all taxation, as stated in its Charter. This fact may have bearing on the omission of this area from the same record, due to its connection with the Abbey through Hook and Snaith.

In 1855 a bronze axe, now in the Mortimer Museum, Hull, was found in the river bank near Goole. In 1949 a prehistoric flint axe was discovered by two schoolboys on the site of the Nab Drive housing estate.

The Romans, Danes, Saxons and the Normans all made use of the River Ouse on their raiding and colonising expeditions. The longships of Earl Tostig and the King of Norway passed up the river prior to their defeat at Stamford Bridge. William the Conqueror too, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was in the vicinity in 1069 when he could not 'come at' King Sweyne of Denmark with his 240 ships 'which lay all winter in the Humber'

To one of his followers, Ilbert de Lacy, William gave over 150 manors, amongst which was practically the whole wapentake of Osgoldcross. Goole, then unknown, later became one of the twelve townships comprising the parish of Snaith.

Hook, a mile to the north of Goole, appears to have given its name to the family de Huc or de Houk. Records exist of several gifts of land by them to Selby Abbey, Drax Priory, and the Convent of Ormesby in Lincolnshire. Other religious houses which benefited or were involved were Nostel Priory, St. Leonard's Hospital and St. Mary's of York. William de Houk was High Sheriff of Yorkshire in 1304.

Sandhall, on the opposite side of the river between Goole and Hook, was in turn the home of the Salvaynes, Damorys and de Vescis. From here Edward Baliol planned his expedition to Scotland in 1332. Edward II placed Margaret, younger daughter of Hugh Despencer, in the care of Thomas de Houk for more than three years until the Prioress of Watton was instructed to receive her as a nun.

For a proper appreciation of the state of this part of Marshland at this period it must be remembered that arable land, pasture, waste and moor were intermingled and the Dutch River was not cut. The tidal waters of the Ouse and its tributaries were liable to cause extensive flooding of the district, especially if embanking was neglected.

Near the river was a hamlet variously called Morham, Morhanwyke, Murham, etc. The derivation is obvious. Several of the gifts made to the Abbeys by the de Hucs were of pasture and moor in this place. In 1270 we find recorded 'Thomas de Gaytinton, Master of St. Leonard's Hospital, York, vs Richard son of Isabella de Swyneflete, John son of Robert Woderove and others, a plea wherefore they came to Marhamwyke and took and carried off the Master's corn there, to the value of 40s.' Again we find, in 1371, 'The Master of St. Leonard's Hospital, York, vs Roger de Holdernesse, Richard de Helmeshale of Swynflet and Richard Hayre of Swynflet, for not mending the banks of the River Ouse at Morhanwyke'. Boothferry Road, the main street of Goole, follows the line of Murham Lane which led to Murham Clough and Murham Staith.

Another stretch of moor described as near Swinefleet or Rawcliffe was Ecclesmore, Jukelsmore or Inklesmore. Abbot Gatesby or Gaddesby of Selby in about 1341 set out to reclaim this but after his death his work was maliciously destroyed.

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth one named Laverock put forward a scheme for draining the vast morass of Hatfield Chace. This royal enclosure, bounded on the north by the Aire at Rawcliffe and Airmyn, also abutted on Goole Fields and Swinefleet. Offenders were brought before a special court at Hatfield, the Swanimote, where verderers were the judges; Thorne Peel was used for their imprisonment. At this court, on 5th June, 1538 the Keeper of Brodholme said 'that one Richard Emson and others, servants to Sheffield, about six years past, did kill three deer in Ingles, that is to say, one hind and two hind calves, and were punished for the same'. The Keeper of Wrengels said 'that the Township of Rocliffe, Arymin, Howke, Gowle and Holden did kill game in the Comocon time (commotion time, Pilgrimage of Grace 1536) XXXII deer or thereabout'.

A new era was dawning. In 1616 a new river or canal was projected from Blacktoft on the Humber to Water Fulford. This was probably in consequence of a promise made to the City of York by James I 'to have their River amended and made more navigable'. Fortunately for the future of Goole this plan was not carried out. James I, however, in 1621, obtained advice and help on drainage and dams from a skilful Dutch engineer, Cornelius Vermuyden. A survey was made of Hatfield Chace and Vermuyden undertook to drain it. On the 24th May, 1626, Charles I granted Vermuyden a charter with the object of putting the scheme into effect. The story of this enterprise is fully told by J. Korthals-Altes in his book 'Sir Cornelius Vermuyden'. The cutting of the Dutch River from New Bridge to Goole to draw off the flood waters in the Sykehouse - Pollington area altered the appearance of the locality. It is believed there were originally two parallel 'cuts' with a 'noble sluice' at Goole. Charles I on his way from York in 1642 crossed the Ouse at Whitgift Ferry, came to Goole and made his way along the great bank to Hatfield and so on to Gainsborough and Nottingham. We read that Henry Cooke, carpenter, had 3/4 a day for two months while working on the 'great sluice at Goole in 1651'. As a sidelight on the times it is interesting to notice here that Christopher Bullock, Carrier, Goole, in 1669, issued his own 'halfe-penny tokens' for small change, bearing his name and calling, together with 'a man on horseback'. In 1688 the sluice at Goole was 'blown up' by great floods which caused the centre bank to be washed away and gave the New River its present appearance. A ferry provided the means of crossing the narrow waters before the building of a wooden bridge. The old bridge was in time condemned, a temporary one made beside it and on January 17th, 1890 the new iron one was opened to traffic on the site of the old one.

The Goole Town Book provides many items of interest such as 'Jarvis Cornwell bought this book being Overseer for 1722'; the names of those who contributed to the cost of cleaning drains of children put out as apprentices the Constables, etc., etc. A Memo Nov. ye 24, 1743, reads 'At a General by law it was agreed upon by ye hands under subscribed we have agreed yt at any by law there shall be no more spent upon ye Towns charge than six shillings and eight pence. Agreed by us Edmund Thompson, Alex Root, Matthew Pepper, Robt. Showers, Willm. Johnson, Richard Godfrey, John Margrave, John Priestley, Thomas Smith and Cornls. Empson'.

Goole Hall was the home of the Empsons and Grove House, built about 1780, of the Listers. As late as 1818 'only twelve houses stood in the village or town, and eight of these were on the Old Goole side of Dutch River'. The only waggon road was from Murham Lane Staith to Old Goole Bridge, running almost straight to it, and from which a path ran towards Potter Grange Farm, while another path consisted of a continuation of Pasture Lane, which before the Dutch River had been cut, ran straight across the Moors.

The roads in Goole and neighbourhood were first stoned in 1822 and in Whit-week the contract for the cutting of Goole Docks was signed at Booth Ferry Inn, then part of the present Booth Ferry House. The first street was laid out in Goole in 1823. The population, then between 400 and 500, rapidly increased with the influx of business, trade and labour and under the care and guidance of the Aire and Calder Navigation the town as well as the port became established.

Visitor Comments

Posted by Tim Midgley at 04/07/2008 15:34
21st Feb 1329 at Westminster -
Grant in fee simple to Geoffrey le Scrope, in recompence of a like grantto him by the late king of the manor of Brakon [Bracken], co, York, late of Henry Tyeys, and the manors of Burghwaleys and Neutonwaleys, late of Richard le Waleys, which escheated to the said king by forfeiture through the quarrel of Thomas, late earl of Lancaster, but which are now restored to the heirs of the said Henry and to the said Richard by virtue of the statute [1 Edward III., statute 1, cap. 3]; and also in consideration of the said Geoffrey having granted to queen Isabella, in fee, the manor of Eltham Maundevill; of a pension of 100L. out of the Exchequer, as well as of the reversion of the manor of Whitegift, and lands and rents in Ouseflete, Swyneflete, Rednesse, Houk, Ayremynne and the moor of Inklesmore, co. York, now held for life by the said queen, and of the yearly value of 50L., On his succeeding to the manor and lands the pension is to cease.
By K. & C.

C.P.R. Edward III, vol. 1, p. 401 Years: 1327-1330

15th Dec 1330 Westminster -
Grant in fee, with the assent of Parliament, to Geoffrey le Scrope, in consideration of the great place which he holds in the kingdom and in recompence of the manors of Braken [Bracken near Kilnwick, E.R.Y.], Burghwaleys and Neutone Waleys, co. York, lately taken from him under the statute of Parliament for restitution of the lands forfeited by reason of the quarrel of Thomas, earl of Lancaster,and of a yearly sum of 100L. granted to him for the life of queen Isabella,of the manor of Whitegift with the lands and rents in Ousellete, Swyneflete,Rednesse, Houk, Ayremynne and the moor of Inklesmore, in the same county, lately held by the said queen, together with the knights' fees, advowsons and such other appurtenances as she had. By K.

C.P.R. Edward III, vol. 2, p. 31 Years: 1330-1334

Add your own comment